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These days the diagnosis for a diseased became proficient and applied concern. The medications used for treatment are carrying adverse effects till the site of action resulting, unlike diseases. In case of pediatrics, the developing stages are at basic levels with a low calibre of immunity, considering these measure the prevention of diseases the best-implied technique to save the new-born, infants, and adolescents from the noted threats. New morbidities, cross-cultural issues, cost-effectiveness, quality of care, and practice in managed care and other community settings are some of the simple techniques in preventive measures.
\r\n The case reports are the source of knowledge regarding a disease and diagnosis in initial days. A clinical case report contains complete information about disease symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-ups of the patient. Case reports also helpful for clinical practices which offer a framework for early signs of effectiveness and adverse activities. A case report is an initial document which help finds key signs and symptoms to make future diagnoses simpler.\r\n
\r\n Vaccination is the highly remarkable progress in overcoming health issues. These vaccines help protect infants, children, and teens from serious diseases before it occurs by developing immunity. The vaccination should be done early in life, soon after birth accordingly. Vaccination will give best results when implemented at particular age of a child. There are some common diseases getting vanished with proper vaccination such as measles, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and more. Mainly there are four types of vaccines,\r\n
- \r\n Live-Attenuated Vaccines \r\n
- \r\n Inactivated Vaccines \r\n
- \r\n Toxoid Vaccines \r\n
- \r\n Subunit, Recombinant, Polysaccharide, and Conjugate Vaccines \r\n
\r\n Pediatric Gastroenterology is the subspecialty of pediatrics and gastroenterology that focuses on the disorders of digestive system of children. The proper function of the gastric tract and the internal health of a child are related to the nutrition it receives from its mother or its mother receives. There are fewer common issues that can cause children to have digestive problems, including: celiac disease, bowel obstruction, pancreatitis, hepatitis, Crohn's disease & ulcerative colitis. Pediatric hepatology is the subdivision of internal medicine that focuses the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary system and pancreas including diagnosis, treatment and management of their disorders.\r\n
\r\n Common gastrointestinal diseases in children:\r\n
- \r\n Appendicitis \r\n
- \r\n Diarrhea \r\n
- \r\n Constipation \r\n
- \r\n Malabsorption \r\n
- \r\n Gastroenteritis \r\n
- \r\n Food intolerance \r\n
Rehabilitation is required to the persons with irregularities in the physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological, and social functional levels. These irregularities mostly occur by birth as hereditary or due to neurological disorders, brain injuries, and spinal cord injuries. The diagnoses are electromyography (EMG), Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS), the drug at an equivalent time, poor ingestion habits, or medical conditions like allergies, disorder or polygenic disease, will impair a child's womb-to-tomb health if left unrestrained. Medical dieticians work with youngsters, and their oldsters and caregivers, to ascertain smart dietary habits Botulinum toxin. Some of the conditions can be treated under pediatric rehabilitation are,
- Cerebral Palsy
- Down syndrome
- Muscular Dystrophy
- Spina Bifida
- Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Cardio-Pulmonary Disorders
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Cancer and Traumatic Brain Injury
\r\n Child Abuse -An action or omission of action which impacts negativity on the social and mental wellbeing of a child. The Child Abuse is also called Child Maltreatment, which explained that the words or overt actions causing a potential harm or threatening harm to a child. It is also defined as an activity when a child is in need of protective intervention.\r\n
Autism is a kind in neurodevelopmental disorders. This disorder is specially related to the communication problems and levels of social interaction. Accordingly, this autism will occur more often in boys than girls with a ratio of 4:1.
Different types in Autism:
- Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
- Autistic disorder
- Asperger’s syndrome
- Pervasive development disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
- Childhood disintegrative disorder
\r\n Pediatric Dentistry also referred as Pedodontics’ mainly concerned with the teeth and associated structures of the oral cavity, including prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease and restoration of defective and missing teeth. It provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescents as well.\r\n
Pediatric Cardiology represents the heart diseases in children. It is comprised of congenital and acquired heart diseases. The diagnosis involves effective medical and surgical therapies.
Cardiac malformations are one of the major birth defects which affect the infant mortality rate.
The Neonatal Intensive Care (NICU) unit is a special place where the new-born ill children provided with close monitoring and special intensive care. The NICU contains high end technical and sophisticated monitoring devices and equipment and this is staffed by well trained to deliver critical care. Notably NICUs are units designed for the intensive care of adults, infants, children, or new-borns. These NICUs provides the provision of intensive nursing and medical care of critically ill children, characterized by the high quality and quantity of continuous nursing and medical supervision and by use of sophisticated monitoring and resuscitative equipment.
Pediatrics Surgery undergoes diagnosis, treatment, and managing the children’s surgical needs. The surgery specialistsdeals with children are Pediatric Surgeons, provides postoperative surgical care to them from parental diagnosis through adolescents with congenital, acquired anomalies, tumours, trauma, and urologic problems as well. The pediartic surgery subsumes the developments in fetal surgery, adolescent bariatric surgery, minimally invasive surgery in children, and tissue engineering takes childhood surgery a step forward.
Every cell in the body has its own controlled system for growth, interaction, and lifespan. When a cell loses its growth control, interaction levels, it undergoes uncontrolled and irregular cell division or growth results in cancer. This cancer effects to any age group of people but the diagnosis will be differs based on the age group. Here in children, the cancer is studied as Pediatric Oncology. Children can be affected by cancer to any parts of the body and these childhood cancers occur in sudden without any symptoms but have a high rate of cure. In children the mostly listed type is leukaemia and also others include brain tumours, lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcoma. The diagnosis depends on the type of cancer and how advanced it is. Here are some types of diagnosis,
- Radiation therapy
- Stem cell transplants
- Targeted therapy
The subspecialty Pediatric Neurology deals with neurological and neuromuscular disorders in infants, neonates, children and adolescents. In this age group the pediatric neurology girdles diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, muscles, and blood vessels.
Nutrition is a crucial element to the developing body, the pediatrics. The perfect nutrition accomplishes the developing brains and bodies enabling them to influence their full potential. Also, the poor eating habits and medical conditions such as allergies, celiac disease or diabetes, can impair a child's lifelong health if left unchecked. Pediatric dieticians work with children, and their parents and caregivers, to ascertain smart dietary habits.
A branch of medicine deals with the management and neonatal healthcare, including physical, behaviour, and mental health issues. It is a medical subspecialty involved in providing preventative health maintenance for healthy children and medical care for the children who are ill and diseased. This subspecialty in deep diagnoses and treats the infections, injuries, genetic defects, diseases and dysfunctions.
Pediatric Nursing is a medical practice focused on the care of newborns, infants, and adolescents along with their families. This subspecialty is especially embracing all scientific disciplines in eliminating suffering and improving child health. Prevention and health education are the key factors of pediatric nursing. Pediatric nursing is a very special vocation which provides an opportunity to play a key role in a child’s life when that child needs care at the most.
Types of Pediatric Nursing:
- Direct nursing care
- Neonatal nursing
- Pediatric emergency nursing
- Palliative Pediatric nursing
The study of children skin titles as Pediatric Dermatology and deals with the disorders, infections and injuries. Complete care and diagnosis involves medication and therapies and surgeries such as laser therapy and cutaneous surgery. The various skin disorders includes birthmarks, skin infections, dermatitis, melanocytic nevi, genodermatoses, acne form eruptions, rare forms of skin cancers, drug eruptions, viral exanthems, and collagen vascular disorders.
Psychological/mental deals with physical wellbeing and sickness of a child and the connection between mental/behavioural elements and wellbeing, ailment and infection, the most widely recognized mental clutters in children are anxiety issue, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Pediatric psychology is a multidisciplinary study of both scientific investigation and clinical practice which delivers psychological services to infants, toddlers, children and adolescents.
Symptoms of psychological disorders in children:
- Unexplained weight loss
- Frequent vomiting
- Eating Disorders
- Headache and stomach ache rather than sadness or anxiety
Pediatrics Medical Emergency is a composite study of general pediatrics and medical emergency. This study provides the complete care process to take care of children who are in requirement of quick medical attention. Pediatric Medical Emergency, most unexpected health issues are respiratory related asthma and including others like dehydration, seizures, and anaphylaxis. Respiratory failures, severe trauma, foreign body/obstructed the airway, shock, meningitis, sepsis, and apnea observed in many cases.